UW-Madison to Lead Effort to Improve Processed Potatoes
According to the project's leader, Paul Bethke, a UW-Madison assistant professor of horticulture and USDA-ARS plant physiologist, acrylamide is an unwanted compound in products like processed potatoes.
A small research-based Norwegian company has developed a method to reduce the formation of the carcinogenic compound acrylamide during industrial production of potatoes and coffee. International food giants are paying attention. In 2002 Swedish researchers found that the carcinogenic compound acrylamide was present in many foods – a discovery that grabbed international headlines and frightened consumers and food safety authorities around the world. What these production foods had in common was high-temperature cooking which formed a crust or browning reaction. The acrylamide issue has had dramatic consequences for the manufacturers involved.
Dietary acrylamide exposure among Finnish adults and children
Among children, substituting boiled potatoes for chips and other friend potatoes and replacing biscuits with sweet wheat buns while lowering the acrylamide content of starch-based casseroles by 50% would lead to acrylamide exposure that is only half of the original exposure. In conclusions, dietary modifications could have a large impact in decreasing acrylamide exposure.
World governments focus on potential harm in french fries
Earlier this week, a health advocacy group filed suit against KFC, one of
several chains the group has targeted over the years, regarding the presence of
a naturally occuring carcinogen in grilled chicken.
High Acrylamide Levels in Espresso
The level of acrylamide?a naturally occurring chemical that may cause a human
health risk?in espresso coffee might be influenced by species, roast degree and
brew length, according to Portuguese research to be published in Food
Cancer-fighting additive weighed for junk food
Canada is investigating whether to approve a cancer-fighting additive's use in
junk food, but Health Canada wants consumers to weigh in on the idea first.
Canada Includes Acrylamide To Toxic Substance List
Health Canada has added acrylamide to the government’s list of toxic
substances. Acrylamide is a chemical that appears in both food packaging and
Onderzoekers van de vakgroep
Voedselveiligheid en Voedselkwaliteit van de UGent hebben innovatieve technieken
ontwikkeld om het acrylamidegehalte in frietjes te verminderen. Acrylamide is een
vermoedelijk kankerverwekkende stof die in meerdere voedingsmiddelen voorkomt.
In 2002 werd acrylamide, een vermoedelijk
kankerverwekkende stof, aangetoond in verschillende levensmiddelen, waaronder friet. De
afgelopen jaren werden verschillende technieken ontwikkeld om de vorming van deze stof
tijdens het frituren drastisch te verminderen. Een toetsing aan de industriële praktijk
ontbrak echter. Doctoraatsstudente Raquel Medeiros Vinci, promotor professor Bruno De
Meulenaer en Frédéric Mestdagh van de onderzoeksgroep Levensmiddelenchemie en Humane
Voeding testten twee strategieën uit om het acrylamidegehalte in frieten te verminderen
tijdens de industriële productie. De studie werd uitgevoerd in samenwerking met de
aardappelverwerkende industrie (Belgapom en EUPPA - European Potato Processors'
Association) en Flanders Food.
Een eerste strategie bestaat in een
kwaliteitscontrole van de aardappel bij aankomst in de fabriek. De wetenschappers
onderzochten het verband tussen het suikergehalte van de aardappelknol, de vorming van
acrylamide en de kleur van het afgebakken product. Uit de studie blijkt dat het mogelijk
is om ladingen aardappelen die gevoelig zijn voor acrylamidevorming te identificeren
voordat ze het productieproces ingaan. Zo kan de aardappelverwerkende industrie deze
ladingen gebruiken voor andere doeleinden dan de productie van friet. Een andere
mogelijkheid is de procesparameters aan te passen zodat het risico voor acrylamidevorming
Bij de tweede strategie onderwierp de
onderzoekster de aardappelen aan diverse voorbehandelingen tijdens het industriële
productieproces van diepvriesfrietjes. Doel was de acrylamidevorming tijdens het bakken
verder te verlagen. Bij het voorbehandelen werd gebruik gemaakt van diverse voedingszuren,
-zouten en het enzym asparaginase. Deze componenten bleken efficiënt te zijn tijdens
laboratoriumexperimenten maar zorgden in de industriële praktijk niet voor een extra
daling in acrylamidegehalte.
Voor de productie van gekoelde,
niet-voorgebakken verse frietjes werd wel succes geboekt. Na voorbehandeling met het enzym
asparaginase werd na het frituren geen acrylamide aangetroffen in het eindproduct, en dit
zonder impact op de smaak en de houdbaarheid van de frietjes.
Aangezien acrylamide gevormd wordt tijdens
het finaal afbakken en gelinkt is met de kleur van de frietjes, blijft het belangrijk dat
de consument of cateraar de bakinstructies op de verpakking volgt. Een te lange baktijd
en/of te hoge baktemperatuur zorgt namelijk voor donker gekleurde frieten die een hoger
acrylamidegehalte hebben. Goudgele frieten zijn dus gezonder dan donkerder gekleurde.
Fast-food chains oil found
The Consumer Protection Commission (CPC) reported yesterday that in a random inspection of
eight fast-food chain stores, oils in fryers were found unchanged and reused for several
Certain antioxidants may reduce
acrylamide in food
The collaboration project has also involved a PhD research project which has tested the
addition of different antioxidants. The addition of rosemary to dough prior to baking a
portion of wheat buns at 225°C reduced the acrylamide content by up to 60 per cent. Even
rosemary in small quantities in one per cent of the dough was enough to
reduce the acrylamide content significantly. Flavonoids are another type of antioxidant
found, among other things, in vegetables, chocolate and tea. Tests also showed that the
addition of the flavonoids epicatechin and epigallocatechin from green tea considerably
reduced the acrylamide content. "Antioxidants are substances which inhibit the
formation of free radicals in the food and eliminate free radicals in the body. Our tests
indicate that free radicals are formed when cooking and potentially increasing the
acrylamide content in certain foods," explains Rikke Vingborg Hedegaard, PhD at the
National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, who is responsible for the PhD
project. "However, the findings do not show a general association between
antioxidants and reducing acrylamide in foods. The tests indicate that different
antioxidants do not have the same effect on the formation of acrylamide, and that it is
important how antioxidants are added to a product to have an effect on the acrylamide
content," adds Rikke Vingborg Hedegaard.
Dried Fruit Warning - Prunes and
Pears Found to Contain High Levels of Acrylamide Chemicals
A possibly carcinogenic chemical found in starchy foods cooked at high heat is also found
in high quantities in dried fruit, according to a new study conducted by researchers at
the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology and presented at a symposium on the chemical
that took place in Boston.
Dietary acrylamide may play a role
in Alzheimers, researchers theorize
Scientists have known for years that acrylamide is capable of causing nerve damage in
humans, including muscle weakness and impaired muscle coordination, particularly from
industrial exposure to large levels of the chemical. Now, new laboratory studies suggest
that chronic dietary exposure to the chemical is capable of damaging nerve cells in the
brain and could potentially play a role in the development of neurodegenerative disease,
including Alzheimers, according to Richard LoPachin, Jr., Ph.D., a neurotoxicologist
with Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York. He notes that acrylamide is
structurally similar to acrolein, a chemical found in increased levels in brains of
patients with Alzheimers and other neurodegenerative diseases. Studies in humans are
warranted, the researcher says.
The promoting effect of ammonium
bicarbonate and detection of acrylamide in dried fruit
The highest concentrations were found in dark dried pears (exceeding 1000 µg/kg) and
dried plums. These products are dried at temperatures well below 100 °C which indicates
that acrylamide might not have been formed via reaction of hexoses and asparagine.
The Novozymes ingredient contains a special enzyme which is able to break down any
acrylamide present into non-harmful components. Testing had indicated reductions in
acrylamide levels of 50% to 90% were possible in products such as biscuits and cakes.
Soaking potatoes in water before
frying reduces acrylamide
Good news for chips lovers everywhere new research in SCIs Journal of the
Science of Food and Agriculture shows that pre-soaking potatoes in water before frying can
reduce levels of acrylamide. Acrylamide is a naturally occurring chemical that occurs when
starch rich foods are cooked at high temperatures, such as frying, baking, grilling or
roasting. There has been growing concern that acrylamide found in a wide range of
foods may be harmful to health and may cause cancer in animals. But the new
research by the UK team led by Dr Rachel Burch from Leatherhead Food International found
that a simple measure of pre-soaking potatoes before frying can dramatically reduce the
formation of acrylamide and may therefore reduce any subsequent risk it may pose. Dr
Rachel Burch said There has been much research done by the food industry looking at
reducing acrylamide in products but less so on foods cooked at home and we wanted to
explore ways of reducing the level of acrylamide in home cooking. The study found
that washing raw French fries, soaking them for 30 mins and soaking them for 2 hours
reduced the formation of acrylamide by up to 23%, 38% and 48% respectively but only if
they were fried to a lighter colour. The jury is still out on chips that are fried to a
deep, dark brown.
Food safety body sets French fries,
baby food rules
The Commission has approved measures to reduce acrylamide in foods, a chemical which may
cause cancer and is produced during frying, roasting and baking of carbohydrate-rich foods
- fnch fries, potato crisps, coffee, biscuits, pastries and breads.
Study Finds Possible Health Risk in
Certain Cooked Food
reports on a new study from Poland published in the American Journal of Clinical
Nutrition. Marek Naruszewicz and colleagues followed participants who ingested acrylamide
foods. The results suggested acrylamide, found particularly high in potato chips and
French fries, may increase the risk of heart disease. Acrylamide has already been
implicated as a carcinogen and neurotoxin.
Acrylamide exposure and incidence
of breast cancer among postmenopausal women in the Danish Diet
After adjustment for smoking behavior, however, a positive association was seen between
acrylamide-hemoglobin levels and estrogen receptor positive breast cancer with an
estimated incidence rate ratio (95% CI) of 2.7 (1.1-6.6) per 10-fold increase in
acrylamide-hemoglobin level. A weak association between glycidamide hemoglobin levels and
incidence of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer was also found, this association,
however, entirely disappeared when acrylamide and glycidamide hemoglobin levels were
A FUNGAL extract could be added to hot chips and other fried foods to stop them forming a
chemical that is linked to cancer. Acrylamide forms in food when it is heated above 120C
during baking or frying.
Symposium explores health effects
of acrylamide, ways to reduce it in food
Acrylamide, a widely-used synthetic chemical that some studies have linked to cancer and
neurological damage, has recently been shown to occur naturally in an increasing number of
foods ranging from French fries to coffee. The potential health effects of acrylamide and
ways to reduce its content in food will be explored during a three-day symposium,
"Chemistry and Toxicology of Acrylamide," Aug. 21-23 during the national meeting
of the American Chemical Society in Boston.
The most recent independent research indicates that those imbibing 40 microgrammes a day
of the carcinogen are twice as likely to get cancer of the ovary or the womb as those with
low intakes. That is the equivalent to half a packet of biscuits or a packet of crisps.
There are nine microgrammes in a serving of breakfast cereal.
DIETARY INTAKE of acrylamide, a probable human carcinogen, may be associated with an
increased risk of renal cell cancer, according to a report in the American Journal of
Clinical Nutrition (2008;87:1428-1438).
Frito-Lay and two other potato chip companies have agreed to reduce the levels of a
cancer-causing chemical in their products in a settlement of a state lawsuit, Attorney
General Jerry Brown said Friday. The court-approved settlement comes three years after
Brown's predecessor, Bill Lockyer, sued fast-food chains and potato chip companies, saying
they had failed to warn California consumers about the dangers of acrylamide.
Burning carbohydrate-rich foods
could cause some cancers
Dutch scientists have said in a study that burning your food may lead to certain types of
cancer, particularly in women. Scientists also say that more research is needed to make a
definite determination and that there are other factors that could be to blame.
FDA-Approved Bacteria Blocks
Acrylamide Formation in Cooked Foods
The FDA has granted Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) status to the use of a
bacteria-derived enzyme to prevent the formation of acrylamide in cooked foods. Acrylamide
is a toxic chemical that forms when starchy foods, such as grains or potatoes, are baked,
fried or microwaved. The substance is known to be carcinogenic in mice and rats, and is a
suspected carcinogen among humans. Acrylamide is also a neurotoxin that, in large doses,
may cause muscle pain, nausea, numbness, sweating, speech disorders, urinary incontinence
and damage to male reproductive glands. A joint United Nations Food and Agriculture
Organization/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives identified
acrylamide as a potential human health concern, due to genotoxicity and carcinogenicity.